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BJSM cover competition – round 2 (Vote now!)

21 Dec, 12 | by Karim Khan

The winner of round 1!

Thanks to everyone who voted in round 1 of our second annual BJSM cover competition. Perhaps due to flexibility envy, BJSM’s issue #2 (ECOSEP special issue) goes through to the final.

See the four awesome covers in this second round. To recap: You (and your friends) vote below for your favourite cover. One click and you would make Abe Lincoln proud. The winner of the remaining preliminary rounds joins the Hamstring Issue in the final.

We will have prizes (a draw from those who vote) in the final. Right now, vote for your favourite cover from April – June 2012. (There were 16 issues of BJSM in 2012 – because of our links with the IOC and their 4 issues dedicated to Injury Prevention and Health Promotion – see the Olympic Rings on those issue covers, e.g, Cover 7, below). If you want to vote along ‘party lines’ remember that issue 5 and 8 were guided by the AMSSM (US) and SASMA (South Africa) respectively. BJSM has 12 actively engaged member societies.

Cover 5

Cover 5

Cover 6

Cover 6













Cover 7

Cover 7


Cover 8

Guest blog: Do athletes with prosthetic limbs have an unfair advantage over able-bodied athletes?

5 Aug, 12 | by Karim Khan



Abhishek Chitnis

3rd Year Medical Student

Keele University


The use of prosthetic limbs in medicine has helped many patients over millennia lead a more comfortable life, enabling them to continue their activities of daily living as well as to compete in sport. In developing countries, prosthetic limbs are mainly used because of amputation due to trauma related injuries such as those suffered in conflict or road traffic injuries.[1] By contrast, in developed countries, the main cause of lower limb amputation is atherosclerosis, which may be affiliated with diabetes.[2] In the UK alone there are about 5000 new major amputations yearly, usually occurring in those who are sixty years old (or above),[1] making the use and development of prosthetics vital in the 21st century.

For athletes, this may be especially important as it could help them lead a normal life having being born with congenital limb problems. Other athletes who have suffered major trauma related injuries may want to continue competing in sports, and the development of prosthesis helps them achieve their goals. However, technological developments in sport can be controversial and this article aims to review any discrepancies as to whether or not technology creates an unfair advantage for the Paralympian, when competing against able-bodied Olympic athletes.

The history and development of prosthetics

Prosthetics have been used for over 3000 years, from the Egyptians where a prosthetic toe made of wood and leather has been discovered, to armoured knights who used prosthetic arms and legs in battle. In the sixteenth century Ambroise Paré invented prosthetics with joints, allowing prosthesis to become more functional.[3] And its not only humans who use prosthesis; elephants and horses that have been injured in accidents have also been given prostheses to help them move around!

Prosthetic limbs have evolved over time to use more advanced materials such as plastics and carbon-fibre composites. These materials make the prosthesis lighter, stronger and more realistic enabling the patient to engage in a full range of normal activities.[3]

Prostheses for athletes; the Flex-Foot

For athletes, possibly the most important development in prosthetic limbs has been the development of the energy-storing Flex-Foot, a carbon-fibre prosthesis with a heel component. Studies have shown the Flex-Foot provides amputees with a natural ankle motion and gives up to 84% of energy return rate to every step taken,[4] resulting in lower energy expenditure and an enhanced gait efficiency.[4] This value may seem high, but in comparison, the energy return rate of a natural limb is about three times higher at 241%.[4]

The Flex-Foot however only conserves energy at higher walking velocities and it does not seem to provide any major advantages for less active amputees. In a recent study to find the benefits of the Flex-Foot when compared with a conventional prosthesis, results showed that amputees had a lower induced disability when walking in a variety of different situations with the Flex-Foot than with conventional prostheses.[5]

Another study showed that amputees walking with the Flex-Foot had a lower heart rate and a lower VO2 (maximal oxygen uptake) than amputees walking with normal prosthesis[4], enabling them to walk for longer distances before tiring.

Case study; Oscar Pistorius

The above studies show that the Flex-Foot was the best type of prosthesis for athletes but the application of this technology has been controversial, as demonstrated by the much-heralded Oscar Pistorius or ‘Blade Runner’. The double amputee Paralympic runner who uses the “Cheetah” Flex-Foot (Figure. 2), a sprinting variant of the Flex-Foot without the heel, was eligible to qualify in the men’s 400 m sprint in both the 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Games. This begged the question; do Pistorius’ Cheetahs provide him with any advantage over biological limbs?  Or are they needed to maximise his performance and to overcome any compensatory consequences his disability creates?

Pistorius was born with absent fibulas in both legs due to a congenital condition and at the age of 11 months he had a transtibial (below-knee) amputation to remove both legs. During his time at school, Pistorius competed in a number of different sports, including rugby, water polo, tennis and wrestling. At 17 he discovered athletics and he went on to win gold in the men’s 200m during the 2004 Paralympic games.

However in 2007, the International Association of Athletics Federation (IAAF) asked for an assessment to be carried out to find out whether the prostheses Pistorius used gave him any undue advantage. The study[6] found that at a given speed, the Cheetahs he used consumed 25% less energy than the runners he was compared to. This would mean Pistorius would have a much lower muscular demand, enabling him to run faster and for longer periods of time before he got tired.

Interestingly, as the normal Flex-Foot was found to give an 84% energy return compared to 241% of a natural limb, it was found that the Cheetahs energy return was three times higher than of a natural limb. The consequence of this would mean that Pistorius would be able to run at the speed with much lower energy expenditure.

The study also found Pistorius displayed a much lower vertical motion than able-bodied runners, meaning he lost less energy during the landing and take-off phase of running. This lead to the finding that the Cheetahs only lost 9.3% of energy during the stance phase of running compared to 41.4% in the biological leg. This meant that Pistorius had a much lower physiological and metabolic workload, giving him a large mechanical advantage over a biological leg. Pistorius argued the case stating the disadvantages he faced with his prostheses including running in the rain (giving him lower traction on the track), wind (which blew his prostheses sideways) and the fact that he needed more energy to start running than other competitors. However, the IAAF found him to breach rule 144.2 “any technical device … that provides a user with an advantage over another athlete not using such a device”,[6] subsequently barring him from competing in any IAAF events including the 2008 Olympic games.

He consequently appealed and in May 2008 just before the Olympics, the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) overturned the IAAF’s ban stating that there was insufficient evidence that Pistorious’ prostheses provided him with any sort of metabolic advantage over able-bodied competitors. It also concluded that the IAAF did not consider Pistorius’ disadvantages through the race.  This allowed Pistorius to try and qualify for the Olympics, but however in the end he could not meet the required qualifying time.

However in November 2009, a new study[7] concluded that athletes with a Flex-Foot, similar to one Pistorius used had no advantage over able-bodied competitors. The running mechanics of a number of athletes was tested as they sprinted on a treadmill and the results showed that prosthetic limbs didn’t generate as much force against the ground as biological legs.

Only single amputees were tested so that their prosthetic and biological limbs could easily be compared. The treadmill that the athletes ran on measured the force, called ground reaction force (GRF), each limb generated as it struck the belt; the greater the force, the higher the speed. It was found that at all speeds, athletes produced a 9% lower GFR in their prosthetic limb than their biological limb. In an able-bodied competitor this would mean a 9% drop in their top speed. It was also found that there is no difference in swing times between the prosthetic and biological limbs, meaning that even though prostheses are lighter than biological legs, amputee sprinters don’t move their legs any faster than able-bodied sprinters. To back up this data, the men’s 100m Olympic and Paralympic finals were analysed and again no significant difference in the swing times of their legs was found.

Pistorius argues that thousands of other runners also use the same prosthetic legs as him, without getting anywhere near his times, and that his times have been steadily improving since 2004 since he first got his Cheetahs blades not because of advances in technology, but due to his relentless training and improved technique. His sporting motto is “You’re not disabled by the disabilities you have, you are able by the abilities you have”. This tells us Pistorius feels his impairment does not affect his physical functioning and that to him; competition is as much mind, as it is matter.

In 2011 Pistorius qualified for the world athletics champions in South Korea with a time that would have placed him in fifth place the 400-metre final at the Beijing Olympics. He is currently contesting for a place in the South African sprinting team that will compete in London 2012 Olympics.

Pistorius is not the first disabled athlete who attempted to compete in both the Olympic and Paralympic Games; several have done so before. Natalia Partyka, a table tennis player, was born without a right hand and forearm and competed in the 2008 Olympics and Paralympic games in Beijing and the wheelchair archer, Neroli Fairhall, the first ever paraplegic competitor, participated in the 1984 Olympic Games in Los Angeles and has also competed in several Paralympic Games.

When debating technological developments in sport, it is also important to consider equal access to the technology. For example, Abebe Bikila, an athlete from Ethiopia who ran barefoot, won the Olympic marathon in 1960. How much faster could he have run with the technology to absorb the ground reaction forces and improve friction? Similarly, who knows how much faster other amputees could run if they had access to Pistorius’ Cheetahs, of which access is limited due to their expense. This situation is more problematic for athletes in developing countries, where the funding for new technology is hard to obtain.

Another issue to consider is have the technological development of Pistorius’ Cheetahs lead to his steadily improving times, or it down to his sheer grit and determination as he so claims. If this is due to the former, one can argue: ‘Who’s going to win the gold medal, the athlete or the scientists who have developed and improved the prosthesis?’

Some have reasoned that historical continuity is crucial, so current athletes can be compared to past athletes and achievements can be understood in context. Allowing Pistorius to compete with his existing Cheetahs does not allow this, as he cannot be compared to past sprinters, which represents a break in historical tradition. Others have made the point that “Natural” athleticism should be exhibited, to preserve the essence of a sport. Using a prosthesis represents a much more significant change than using contact lenses or improving your diet.

Psychological issues must also be contemplated; amputees have often gone through stressful and life changing events, often at an early age, which may put a strain on their psychological well being. For example, they may have issues surrounding their body image, self-pity and frustration. Does the use of a prosthesis help amputees overcome any disadvantage that they have suffered psychologically?

Final thoughts

The evolution of prosthetics has led to specialised limbs being developed for athletes, causing controversy to develop as amputees strive to compete against able-bodied athletes with their specialised limbs. Despite the debate, the ruling regarding Oscar Pistorius’ case was the right one. The prosthesis was primarily developed to attempt to restore loss of function in the Paralympian and there have been both studies for and against whether this prosthesis provides him with any advantage over able-bodied athletes. The fact that studies have not shown irrefutable evidence that Pistorius’ Cheetahs give him an advantage, allowing Pistorius to compete in able-bodied competition would constitute providing him fair opportunity to compete. Because of this uncertainty, Pistorius has rightly been given the sporting ‘benefit of the doubt’ and has been eligible to compete in the Olympic Games, given that he meets the required qualifying time. However, more research is required before any conclusive evidence is drawn as to whether prostheses do in fact give amputees an advantage or not. Until then, the question as to whether Pistorius is disabled, or too abled, remains.

The technological development of prosthesis has had a far-reaching impact worldwide, including in war stuck Sierra Leone where people regularly play amputee football. As prosthesis get more functional and advanced, it can be questioned as to whether or not using a prosthesis completely removes an amputees disability, as they now provide the opportunity for amputees to perform activities to the normal range (or even to a greater range), than a normal human being. This can be debated, but one thing is clear; prosthesis are bridging the gap between the disabled and able bodied.


Abhishek Chitnis is a 3rd Year Medical Student at Keele University. He has a keen interest in Sports and Exercise Medicine and hopes to pursue it as a future career. Abhishek can be contacted via email at

All authors have completed the Unified Competing Interest form at (available on request from the corresponding author) and declare: no support from any organisation for the submitted work; no financial relationships with any organisations that might have an interest in the submitted work in the previous 3 years; no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.


  1. Marks LJ, Michael JW. Science, medicine, and the future – Artificial limbs. BMJ 2001;323:732-735.
  1. Kelly BM, Pangilinan PH, Rodriguez GM, et al. (2009) Lower Limb Prosthetics <> (Accessed 04.05.2012).
  1. Thurston A. Pare and Prosthetics: The Early History of Artificial Limbs. ANZ Journal of Surgery 2007;77:1114-1119.
  1. Nolan L. Carbon fibre prostheses and running in amputees: a review. Foot and Ankle Surgery 2008;14:125-129.
  1. Alaranta H, Kinnunen A, Karkkainen M, et al. Practical Benefits of Flex-Foot(TM) in Below-Knee Amputees. JPO 1991;3:179-181.
  1. IAAF. Oscar Pistorius – Independent Scientific study concludes that cheetah prosthetics offer clear mechanical advantages. 2008.  <,newsid=42896.htmx>  (Accessed 04.05.2012)
  1. Grabowski AM, McGowan CP, McDermott WJ, et al. Running-specific prostheses limit ground-force during sprinting. Biology Letters 2010;6:201-204.

Figure 1. Oscar Pistorius running against able-bodied athletes at the Norwich Union British Grand Prix 2007. Adapted from,2933,289450,00.html, 2012.

See also BJSM Online First paper by Professor Lippi – click here

See @ScienceofSport on Twitter and blog: TheScienceofSport for detailed discussion

See website ‘Only a Game’ discuss the topic: Argues for Pistorius running.




Cutting edge science at Mo Farah’s Oregon Training Camp

20 Apr, 12 | by Nick Smallwood

Guest Blog By Nick Smallwood

Post script August 11th, 2012 – Congratulations @Mo_Farah for 5K, 10K double – delighted the world!

Mo Farah knows the fine line between success and failure. At the World Athletics Championships last summer, he missed out on 10,000m gold by a quarter of a second. A few days later, he sprinted down the finishing straight to win the 5000m by 0.28secs.

In championship distance races, which tend to be slow and tactical, the margins are sometimes even slimmer. The thrilling 10,000m duel between Paul Tergat and Haile Gebreselassie in Sydney was decided by nine hundredths of a second – less than the margin of Usain Bolt’s 100m triumph in Beijing.

In Beaverton, Oregon, Mo Farah is working hard in preparation for London 2012, running up to 120 miles a week. Eat, sleep, run, repeat. After the disappointment of fourth place over 3000m at the World Indoors in Istanbul, Farah said: “I’ve got to keep my head down and keep training twice as hard.”

The problem is, the competition will be doing the same; pounding the trails in the thin mountain air.

But Farah and his coach Alberto Salazar have a few tricks up their sleeve in Tracktown USA. No mountains? No problem. Mo sleeps in an altitude tent, fine-tuning his cardiovascular system while he sleeps. Sore legs? Then Mo can jump into a $75,000 Hydroworx pool, and knock out a few more miles on an underwater treadmill. Fatigue is scientifically assessed using metrics such as blood lactate content. This helps to reduce the risk of overtraining.

To boost recovery, Mo hops into a cryogenic chamber, cooled to -104c. Extreme caution is advised in using this particular training aid; US sprinter Justin Gatlin gave himself frostbite when he stepped into a chamber wearing sweaty socks. Cold therapy is not without risk and its effectiveness is hotly disputed. But like his coach, Farah leaves no stone unturned in the search for those crucial fractions of a second.

When Africa-based runners leave London with a clutch of medals, the question of whether the expensive training aids at the Nike sponsored Oregon Project give its athletes an unfair advantage may seem irrelevant. The World Anti Doping Agency (WADA) has investigated the Oregon Project and concluded that everything is above board. Like it or not, the unrelenting search for competitive advantage is part of professional sport.

WADA continues to monitor the use of altitude tents, which allow athletes the perfect combination of sea-level training and life at high altitude. Ultimately, if a training aid is legal and there is a suggestion that it will boost performance, someone will be trying it.

Yet for all the innovations in training methods, running remains a simple sport at heart. The most important ingredients for success are hard work, talent and a pair of running shoes.

Related papers in BJSM:

What is the biomechanical and physiological rationale for using cold-water immersion in sports recovery?

Funky treatments in elite sports people: do they just buy rehabilitation time?

Sports and exercise medicine—specialists or snake oil salesmen?

Respiratory physiology: adaptations to high-level exercise


Don’t miss Richard Budgett’s Olympics podcast…

20 Dec, 11 | by Karim Khan

Just a quick alert that Richard Budgett, the Chief Medical Office for the London Olympics, shares his very special insights.

He was an Olympic Gold medal winner in Los Angeles before serving the UK and now the world!

Click here for the podcast

And remember, the IOC, through its Medical Commission, supports the 4 of the 16 issues of British Journal of Sports Medicine (BJSM) annually. See recent editorial about Youth Olympic Games here. The BJSM is the leading clinical source of sports and exercise medicine.

Perfect time to commit to UKsem London…Nov 23 thru 26 or part thereof…

10 Nov, 11 | by Karim Khan

Looking for a world class conference bringing together sport and exercise medicine, conditioning and science with nutrition, rehabilitation and high performance coaching?. This conference will provide new knowledge for those working with elite sport and recreational athletes as well as those presenting to all clinicians for exercise prescription. See the UKsem home page including the concise video (and Andy Franklin-Miller’s very modish shirt)…Will you be there?

The UKsem site is the best place to find the conference program. Names I am looking forward to hearing from include Roald Bahr (sports injury prevention-always great value), Dan Lieberman (the ‘barefoot doctor’), Damien Comolli (the secret to Liverpool’s success), Vern Gambetta (the art and science of coaching).Vern has over 4000 followers as @coachGambetta on Twitter so you know he’s doing something right.

‘Sleepers’ for many will be Carl Askling on hamstring rehabilitation and Richard Frobell on conservative management of ACLs. The former has terrific programs for both prevention and treatment. He discovered the difference between ‘type I’ (sprinters/football players) and ‘type II’ (stretching/dancer’s) hamstring strains and their very different prognoses. Great teaching videos for both rehab and determining return to play.

Dr Frobell headed up the New England Journal of Medicine RCT which randomized ACL patients to rehab or surgery. Not every conference presenter can open up with that claim…’Thanks for coming and if you doze off during my talk you can read all about in the NEJM….’. Good one. 10 years of hard work to become the overnight sensation. BJSM comments on that paper are here in a WarmUp and here in a podcast with Dr Frobell and his research team. Do your homework and then ask him the stumper at UKsem. Or buy him beer for the great effort!

I’ll stop there as I want you to use your coffee break to go to the UKsem site, not to read this. And by ‘sleepers’ – I meant – ‘under the radar’ — not lectures to sleep in. I would reserve sleeping for Friday morning 9:35 – 10:05. Something about how Mad Men, the Marlboro Man and Freakonomics have the answer to ‘smokadiabesity‘? Weird!

The UKsem site is great but if you insist on only following BJSM pages you can see Andy Franklin-Miller’s WarmUp about the conference here and listen to two interviews with the mellifluous BBC-trained sports physician and fashionista.

July podcast – his conference highlights

October podcast – lower limb biomechanics plus a sneaky conference plug in the last 3 minutes of this 24 minute file.

Nice shirt….

Inaugural ASICS UKSEM, London (24-27th Nov 2010)

9 Nov, 10 | by Karim Khan

The aim of ASICS UKSEM is to develop the multidisciplinary team- from GP to elite team doctor, physiotherapist in private practice, soft tissue therapist, strength and conditioning coach, or high performance coach. All to provide superior patient outcomes.

We are delighted to be endorsed by the Fitness Industry Association, The British Association of Sport Rehabilitators and Trainers (BASRaT) and The Physiological Society (PhysSoc). These partnerships help our speciality develop and advance. We are very excited about the future!

At the conference:

  • Keynote Speaker, Dr Eddie Coyle speaks on The Limits of Human Performance.
  • Lord Coe speaks about the Olympic Games, London 2012 (taking place at the same venue as the UKSEM!)
  • Kevin Giles reveals more about the 5 in 5 UK schools project.
  • 6 DJO Academic Awards has attracted more than 150 Abstract submissions for 40 oral presentations.
  • Bolt-on workshops from Gambetta, Bosch & Giles, James Earl’s Anatamy Trains.
  • BASEM Masterclass GP Programme runs a parallel GP question approach
  • Exhibition stands by our 3 major supporters: ASICS (discussing new technologies), Technogym (launching a new cardiologist designed exercise prescription programme) and Maxinutrition (revealing exclusive research about safe weight loss).

See the UKSEM Website for more details. BJSM featured this event on the October cover and Editor’s Warm up.

Posted by: Dr Andrew Franklyn-Miller, UKSEM

Tackling Osteoarthritis in Sport Conference, London, 21-22 October 2010

15 Sep, 10 | by Karim Khan

Arthritis Research UK and the Institute of Sport and Exercise Medicine (ISEM) are holding a conference to investigate the prevention and management of osteoarthritis following sport or exercise.

Leading international speakers presenting at Tackling Osteoarthritis in Sport include Dr J Richard Steadman (Colorado), renowned for his knee surgery and rehabilitation work with elite sportspeople; and Jiri Dvorak (based in Switzerland), Chief Medical Officer to FIFA. The conference is hosted by Professor Alan Silman of Arthritis Research UK and Professor David Patterson of ISEM.

The two-day event will consider existing research into the development of osteoarthritis as a result of sporting activity, as well as debating and setting the agenda for future research.

It has been awarded 10 CPD credits by the Faculty of Sport and Exercise Medicine (UK).

Professor Silman says:

“Although many people feel they do not have access to medical expertise, we do know how to manage sports injuries in the short term. However, the same cannot be said for managing the longer term implications. There is a lack of knowledge about prevention of longer term problems especially the development of osteoarthritis. Many people who take part in regular sporting activity end up with debilitating pain throughout their lives due to previously sustained injuries or ‘wear and tear’.

“We need to learn from the world’s experts and create a research agenda to better understand the causes and management of osteoarthritis following sport or exercise. We welcome attendance and contributions from those who have an interest in this area, and in the course of future research.”

For further information and to secure your place at the conference, please visit the official website at For further enquiries please contact Riikka Williams at or call +44 (0) 20 3008 6778.

ASICS UKSEM (Sports and Exercise Medicine) Conference; November 24-27, 2010

9 Sep, 10 | by Karim Khan

This is really going to be an awesome meeting so beg, borrow, or just bust through the security to be part of this historic event.

The website is, and there are regular updates on Twitter.

Organiser Andrew Franklyn-Miller reports that the participants will represent a very broad church; from physician to physiotherapist, soft tissue to strength and conditioning, physiologists to immunologists, coaches to fitness professionals. This is a  one stop shop programme where participants all learn from each other in a world class conference.

ASICS have joined us in a similar format to Australia to partner this, as Europe’s largest annual Sports and Exercise Medicine conference and help us develop it as a brand promoting excellence. We have an iPhone app on the way which will allow users to  track abstracts, identify where workshops and lectures are occurring, access our twitter feed /uksem  to post their thoughts and these posts will be broadcast on a big screen in the main hall. We are using the brand new ICC conference Centre at ExCeL, London, as well as one of London 2012’s competition venues. These state-of-the recording so attendees can catch up via the iPhone app later. There are also six £1000 academic prizes for best abstracts in a variety of categories.

The format this year is dual stream on each day with over 30 speakers from 7 countries so the delegate has bundles of choices.  We have a number of optional Saturday workshops from a trimuvirate of Vern Gambetta, Frans Bosch and Kelvin Giles on Athletic development  through high performance to rehabilitation, The Graston Myofascial technique , and hopefully The Tom Myers Anatomy trains workshops.

This year we are joined by the Defence Medical Rehabilitation Conference on our final day bringing  cutting edge performance in the rehabilitation of injured servicemen and women and techniques and evidence based protocols along with some inspiring tales of  prosthetic function and high performance.

Themes include High Performance, Rehabilitation, Immunology in Sport, Exercise Medicine, Sports Psychology, Innovations in Sports Medicine and  Myofacsial Injury.

  • Dr Eddie Coyle; US on ‘The Limits of Human Performance’

  • Lord Sebastian Coe; UK on ‘How are we achieving the Olympic Vision’

  • Prof Paul McCrory; Australia, on ‘Exercise Health in Australia, LEAP and beyond’

  • Kevin Giles; UK on ‘Getting a Nation to Exercise – only 5 in 5’

  • Prof Edzard Ernst; UK on ‘Has Complementary Therapy a place in Sport and Exercise Medicine’

  • Prof William Haskell; US on ‘Exercise is Medicine’

  • Dr Eanna Falvey, Ire on “A clinical biomechanical approach to the groin”

  • Prof Michael Kjaer; Den on ‘What Is Current In SEM On Worldwide Stage? What Should We Research – Hot Topics!’

  • Prof Gordon Lynch; Aus on ‘Muscle Injury, Advances In Repair’

  • Prof Robert Schleip; Ger on ‘Fascia Injury’

  • Prof Bengt Saltin; Den on ‘Muscle As An Endocrine Organ’

Feel free to access the website for more information and help.

ECOSEP Congress September 9th-11th, 2010, London

28 May, 10 | by Karim Khan

ECOSEP Congress is an international interdisciplinary event which is held every two years and attracts over 400 participants from all over Europe.

This year it will take place with the 12TH Annual Scientific Conference in Sport & Exercise Medicine, Centre for Sport & Exercise Medicine, Queen Mary, University of London.

The 2nd ECOSEP congress will be held in London 9-11th September 2010. Prof  Nicola Maffulli, Dr. John King , Prof Charls Galasko, Prof Karim Khan, Dr. Nat Padhiar, Zoe Hudson, and Dr. N Malliaropoulos form part of the organising committee and we welcome contributions from Sports Medicine physicians, Physicians, Rehabilitation medicine physicians, Orthopaedic surgeons, Podiatrists, Podiatric surgeons, Academics, Researchers, Physiotherapists, Osteopaths, Manual therapists, and Exercise therapists.

This will be an important meeting which we hope will galvanise sports physicians into action in preparation for the 2012 Olympics in London.

The Organising and Scientific Committee welcomed you to join participate as a delegate or as an Oral or Poster presenter.

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