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Mixed martial arts: elite athletes or just street brawlers?

13 Sep, 13 | by Karim Khan

Sport and Exercise Medicine: The UK trainee perspective (A BJSM blog series)

By Dr Dinesh Sirisena

Mixed martial arts

Since the first Ultimate Fighting Championships in the early 1990s, Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) has gained popularity with regular national and international tournaments [1]. For some it remains barbaric, taking us back to our primal instincts of fight vs. flight. This has led to calls from medical groups for the sport to be banned [2].

As the name implies MMA involves a variety of disciplines, ranging from wrestling to jujitsu.  Fighters employ whichever form they feel comfortable with in three round contests with weight and skill matched opponents. Victory is achieved by submission, achieving a score from the judges or if one’s opponent is disqualified due to an illegal maneuver or if deemed unfit to continue.  The latter can often involve fight-medics when judging fitness to compete or treating those who may be unconscious.

To the skeptics, fighters may be perceived as brawlers who have accepted MMA rather than choosing other sports.  In reality, the overwhelming majority are well-conditioned, all-round athletes who endure intense training with aerobic, resistance, flexibility and skill-based programs.  Without this conditioning, fighters would not be able to keep pace with high intensity rounds nor withstand the repeated impact from opponents.  Equally, the technical elements play a significant role; with many fighters analyzing a fight long after it has ended.  Thus, although they do not compete in a conventional setting, MMA fighters are far removed from ‘just brawlers’ as many consider them.

When providing medical care as the “fight-medic”, responsibilities involve pre-fight medicals, being present at the ringside for clinical decisions and post-fight medicals or treatments.  Common injuries include contusions and lacerations, but one may be faced with more serious problems such as the unconscious athlete or dealing with acute exhaustion [3].  One case report describes a vertebral artery dissection in a fighter and interestingly, it appears that professional fighters may encounter more injuries than their amateur counterparts [4, 5].

Presently, guidance exists regarding suspension from competition following knockouts or other significant injuries [6].  However, for MMA to progress, medical professionals must review injury patterns and seek methods by which these can be limited.  Although seemingly contrary to the essence of full-contact sport, fighters are athletes and deserve the same consideration from medical professionals as those in other sports.  Equally, with increasing number of female fighters, it is important that we are aware of how injury patterns may differ and thus further work is needed to support these athletes in their chosen sport.


1.         Howe, A. The History. MMA Facts; Available from:

2.         White, C., Mixed martial arts and boxing should be banned, says BMA. BMJ, 2007. 335(7618): p. 469.

3.         Ngai, K.M., F. Levy, and E.B. Hsu, Injury trends in sanctioned mixed martial arts competition: a 5-year review from 2002 to  

2007. Br J Sports Med, 2008. 42(8): p. 686-9.

4.         Slowey, M., G. Maw, and J. Furyk, Case report on vertebral artery dissection in mixed martial arts. Emerg Med Australas,  2012. 24(2): p. 203-6.

5.         Walrod, B., Current review of injuries sustained in mixed martial arts competition. Curr Sports Med Rep, 2011. 10(5): p. 288-9.

6.         MMA, S., ABOUT SAFE MMA : Q & A, S. MMA, Editor 2013: London. p. 1-27.


Dr Dinesh Sirisena is a Sports and Exercise Medicine Registrar in London.  He is the Team Doctor to AFC Wimbledon and the FA Partially-Sighted Development Squad.


Dr James Thing co-ordinates “Sport and Exercise Medicine: The UK trainee perspective” monthly blog series.



Injuries in Golfers who are not Pros – Suggestions for Innovative Research

29 Aug, 13 | by Karim Khan


Mr Alexander M Wood, Orthopaedic Registrar Wansbeck Hospital Ashington

Mr Andre C Keenan, Orthopaedic Registrar Royal Infirmary Of Edinburgh Little France

Mr Stuart A Aitken Orthopaedic Registrar Royal Infirmary Of Edinburgh Little France

corky golf

We thank Dr’s Iain and Andrew Murray and Dr Roger Hawkes for their blog1 Getting to Grips with Golf Injuries,which addresses some issues that surround amateur and professional golfers.  We believe that within this article there is an important message, which should be seized upon.

Whilst there is a decent amount in the literature looking at professional golfers2,3,4,5, possibly due in part to the financial incentives for these patients to avoid injuries and carry on playing. There are very few high quality studies identifying the types of injuries sustained in the amateur golfer and the cause behind these studies. The majority of available papers are retrospective, 6 often with poor response rates. This leads to significant bias in terms of recall, and in the self-analysis as to the causative nature of the injuries, which may not be accurate.  This could be improved by prospective research, which may reduce recall bias, combined with a prospective video assisted analysis of golfers’ swings prior to injury, which may help identify if this is a causative factor.

Attempting to capture decent data on amateur athletes is a challenge. One difficulty is that you often do not have a defined group of participants. Whilst prospective studies have attempted to address this7,by looking at club golfers there is still selection bias, as you miss the ‘occasional’ golfer.

One importance of capturing all participants is that some occasional golfers may have poorer technique than their regular playing counterparts, and are therefore perhaps prone to injury8,. These less-skilled golfers are an important sub-group in the analysis of injuries but difficult to identify.  We have tried to address this lack of information in other sports9,10,11,12 but we have only looked at fractures, which are easy to identify as they all need treatment at a hospital. Soft tissue injuries, on the other hand, are difficult injuries for which to  to get accurate epidemiological information beyond small snapshots.13,14.

What last month’s blog (Getting to Grips with Golf Injuries) does extremely well is highlight the requirement for a well-designed study to capture all golf related injuries sustained in the amateur golfing population.  We suggest that a prospective study could have a study arm looking at golf swing technique taken at the start of the golfing season, and an analysis of its association with golfing injuries.  It should also have outcome measures that identify the impact that injuries have on the ability to return to golf. At the same time it should have an outcome measure that assesses how these injuries impact on participants occupations, which is probably as important to the amateur golfer.

We believe that the important message, about the requirement for information surrounding the injuries sustained by the amateur and occasional sports participants is not unique to golf. Information about the effect of sport on the masses and the injuries they sustain is every bit as important as information about treating professionals.  We underscore that findings in elite/professional athletes are not always directly transferable to amateur athletes.


1 Murray IR, Murray AD, Hawkes RA.  Getting to Grips with Golf Injuries. BJSM Blog 2013:07/15  

2 Vad VB, Bhat AL, Basarai D, Gebeh A, Aspergren DC, Andrews JR. Low Back Pain in Professional Golfers. The Role of Associated Hip and Low Back Range-of-motion Deficits.  American Journal of Sports Medicine 2004 32(2) 494-497

3 Smith MF, Hillman R. A retrospective service audit of a mobile physiotherapy unit on the European Golf Tour. Phys Ther Sport 2012;13(1):41-4

4 Lindsay D, Horton J. Comparison of spine motion in elite golfers with and without low back pain. J Sports Sci 2002;20(8):599-605

5 McDonald JE, Herzog MM, Phillippon MJ. Return to play after hip arthroscopy with microfracture in elite athletes. Arthroscopy 2013; 29(2):330-5

6 Batt ME. A survey of golf injuries in amateur golfers. Br J Sports Med 1992;26(1):63-5.

7 McHardy A, Pollard H, Luo K. One-year follow-up study on golf injuries in Australian amateur golfers. American Journal of Sports Medicine 2007; 35(8):1354-60

8 Renstrom P, Johnson RJ. Overuse Injuries in Sports. Sports Medicine 1985; 2:316-333

9 Court-Brown CM, Wood AM, Aitken S. The Epidemiology of Sports-Related Fractures in Adults. Injury 2008; 39(12):1365-72

10 Wood AM, Robertson GA, Rennie L, Caesar BC, Court-Brown CM. The epidemiology of sports-related fractures in adolescents. Injury 2010; 41(8):834-8

11 Robertson GA, Wood AM, Bakker-dyos J, Aitken SA, Keenan AC, Court-Brown CM. The epidemiology, morbidity, and outcome of soccer-related fractures in a standard population. American Journal of Sports Medicine 2012; 40(8):1851-7

12 Robertson GA, Wood AM, Heil K, Aitken SA, Court-Brown CM. The Epidemiology, morbidity and outcome of fractures in rugby union from a standard population. Injury 2013; 0020-1383(13)00269-6

13 Wood AM, Keenan AC, Arthur C, Wood IM. Common training injuries concerning potential Royal Marine applicants. J R Nav Med Serv. 2011;97(3):106-9

14. Hammond T, Wood AM. Injuries and Medical Issues on the Zambezi “Great River” J R Nav Med Serv. 2013; 99(1):25-28


Questions and queries? Please contact  Mr Alexander M Wood:

Cutting edge science at Mo Farah’s Oregon Training Camp

20 Apr, 12 | by Nick Smallwood

Guest Blog By Nick Smallwood

Post script August 11th, 2012 – Congratulations @Mo_Farah for 5K, 10K double – delighted the world!

Mo Farah knows the fine line between success and failure. At the World Athletics Championships last summer, he missed out on 10,000m gold by a quarter of a second. A few days later, he sprinted down the finishing straight to win the 5000m by 0.28secs.

In championship distance races, which tend to be slow and tactical, the margins are sometimes even slimmer. The thrilling 10,000m duel between Paul Tergat and Haile Gebreselassie in Sydney was decided by nine hundredths of a second – less than the margin of Usain Bolt’s 100m triumph in Beijing.

In Beaverton, Oregon, Mo Farah is working hard in preparation for London 2012, running up to 120 miles a week. Eat, sleep, run, repeat. After the disappointment of fourth place over 3000m at the World Indoors in Istanbul, Farah said: “I’ve got to keep my head down and keep training twice as hard.”

The problem is, the competition will be doing the same; pounding the trails in the thin mountain air.

But Farah and his coach Alberto Salazar have a few tricks up their sleeve in Tracktown USA. No mountains? No problem. Mo sleeps in an altitude tent, fine-tuning his cardiovascular system while he sleeps. Sore legs? Then Mo can jump into a $75,000 Hydroworx pool, and knock out a few more miles on an underwater treadmill. Fatigue is scientifically assessed using metrics such as blood lactate content. This helps to reduce the risk of overtraining.

To boost recovery, Mo hops into a cryogenic chamber, cooled to -104c. Extreme caution is advised in using this particular training aid; US sprinter Justin Gatlin gave himself frostbite when he stepped into a chamber wearing sweaty socks. Cold therapy is not without risk and its effectiveness is hotly disputed. But like his coach, Farah leaves no stone unturned in the search for those crucial fractions of a second.

When Africa-based runners leave London with a clutch of medals, the question of whether the expensive training aids at the Nike sponsored Oregon Project give its athletes an unfair advantage may seem irrelevant. The World Anti Doping Agency (WADA) has investigated the Oregon Project and concluded that everything is above board. Like it or not, the unrelenting search for competitive advantage is part of professional sport.

WADA continues to monitor the use of altitude tents, which allow athletes the perfect combination of sea-level training and life at high altitude. Ultimately, if a training aid is legal and there is a suggestion that it will boost performance, someone will be trying it.

Yet for all the innovations in training methods, running remains a simple sport at heart. The most important ingredients for success are hard work, talent and a pair of running shoes.

Related papers in BJSM:

What is the biomechanical and physiological rationale for using cold-water immersion in sports recovery?

Funky treatments in elite sports people: do they just buy rehabilitation time?

Sports and exercise medicine—specialists or snake oil salesmen?

Respiratory physiology: adaptations to high-level exercise


IOC partnership: Children and Sport BJSM theme issue

13 Aug, 11 | by Karim Khan

This issue of BJSM – one of the 16 annually – focuses on keeping young people healthy. Many readers are not aware that the IOC and BJSM partner to produce 4 issues of the BJSM annually. These issues focus on the IOC mission of ‘Athlete Protection and Health Promotion’. The special issues, generally appearing in March, June, September and December (issue numbers 3, 7, 11, 15) are tagged as Injury Prevention and Health Promotion (IPHP) issues.

The (IOC) recognises the health and fitness benefits of physical activity (PA) and sport as stated in recommendation #51 from the Olympic Movement in Society Congress  Everyone involved in the Olympic Movement must become more aware of the fundamental importance of Physical Activity and sport for a healthy lifestyle, not least in the growing battle against obesity, and must reach out to parents and schools as part of a strategy to counter the rising inactivity of young people.1

Read the consensus paper from the expert group meeting in Lausanne

The IOC expert group  discussed the role of PA and sport on the health and fitness of young people and to critically evaluate the scientific evidence as a basis for decision making. Specifically, the purpose of this consensus paper is to identify potential solutions through collaboration between sport and existing programmes and to review the research gaps in this field. The ultimate aim of the paper is to provide recommendations for those involved in young people’s sport.

We’ll highlight other papers from the issue this week – check out the table of contents.

Comment via the box below or to Send us a Guest Blog! You just email the word document and we do the rest! Follow BJSM on Twitter @BJSM_BMJ for updates to the blog and links to other interesting practical sports and exercise medicine for clincians.

Response to Ian Shrier

30 Nov, 10 | by Karim Khan

We agree with Ian Shrier that the finding of an effect of stretching on risk of muscle, ligament and tendon injuries should be interpreted with caution. That is why we wrote “The finding of an effect of stretching on muscle, ligament and tendon injury risk needs to be considered cautiously because muscle, ligament and tendon injury risk was a secondary outcome, and there was no evidence of an effect of stretching on the primary outcome of all-injury risk. If stretching had reduced the risk of muscle, ligament and tendon injuries without increasing the risk of other injuries, we would expect a reduction in all-injury risk.” Nonetheless, after a prolonged discussion of this issue we decided that the finding could not be totally dismissed. We believe that it was appropriate to report the observed effect on muscle, ligament and tendon injuries with an explicit acknowledgement of the uncertainty associated with this finding.

Regardless of whether one accepts the finding that stretching reduces risk of muscle, tendon and ligament injuries, the implications would appear to be the same. Even if the effect is real, it is quite small in absolute terms (even in this population, at quite a high risk of injury, only “one injury to muscle, ligament or tendon was prevented for every 20 people who stretched for 12 weeks”). For this reason the data from this study do not appear to provide support for the practice of stretching, at least in so far as the aim is to reduce injury risk. The stronger justification for stretching, though still a marginal one in our view, is provided by the clear evidence of a very small effect of stretching on soreness. For other outcomes, such as performance or range of motion our study did not provide any data.

It is not yet known whether stretching is best carried out before exercise, after exercise, or both before and after exercise. We were surprised, when planning this study, to learn that most Australian stretch before exercise but not after, and most Norwegians stretch after exercise but not before! It was for that reason we designed a trial in which participants stretched both before and after exercise. We do not agree with Ian Shrier’s suggestion to conduct an unplanned post-hoc comparison of the non-randomised subgroups that chose to stretch only before, only after, or both before and after exercise. Such an analysis would almost certainly be seriously confounded and would probably be uninterpretable; at any rate it hardly seems consistent with his disapproval of our much more disciplined pre-planned secondary comparison between randomised groups. The only truly satisfactory way to resolve the issue of whether it is better to stretch before or after exercise is to conduct a further randomised trial in which participants are randomised to those two conditions.

Conflict of Interest: None declared

What constitutes the safe use of PRP in sports injuries? Continuing the PRP debate.

25 Nov, 10 | by Karim Khan

This month’s BJSM is hot off the press!

Lars Engebretsen and Kathrin Steffen Warm-Up by introducing us to the International Olympic Committee recommendations and discussing the controversy of PRP.

In this BJSM issue the IOC consensus group caution the use of PRP in elite athletes as we await the outcomes of robust scientific evidence. It addresses the history and what needs to be done in the future for PRP to be  routinely integrated into our practice.

Visit the December IPHP issue of BJSM to find out more. IPHP stands for Injury Prevention and Health Protection – the BJSM publishes 4 special issues on this topic annually in partnership with the IOC. Edited by Lars Engebretsen.

Feel free to post a comment below.

Rapid return to activity after ankle injury

11 Nov, 10 | by Karim Khan

The topic of a new BJSM podcast is Ankle sprains and rehabilitation, with human movement specialist Evert Verhagen.

He addresses accurate diagnosis, whether to tape or brace (and when), principles of return to sport, and issues of cost-effectiveness. This podcast is geared to clinicians treating patients after ankle sprain  — and preventing these injuries in the first place. See Evert’s e-learning module at the BMJ [link] and his editorial on injury prevention with Professor van Mechelen.

If you haven’t checked out our podcasts, go there now. Feel free to post your comments below.

E-Letter: Performance anomalies in running shoe design: Psychological factors?

16 Jul, 10 | by Karim Khan

The following E-Letter is a response to The effect of three different levels of footwear stability on pain outcomes in women runners: a randomised control trial . Abstract | Full article

Ryan et al (1) provide empirical evidence that standards for running shoes in relation to foot posture are far from convincing. In particular, a sophisticated and expensive motion-control design intended for highly pronated feet was less effective than more basic shoes in minimizing injuries and pain to all categories of foot. This outcome echoes Richards et al’s (2) recent negative review regarding the role of shoe design in reducing injury.

I wrote a rapid response (3) to the latter paper suggesting that the origin of the conundrum may not reside only in biomechanics, but rather there may be a psychological element concerning the individual’s interpretation of risk. The extreme form of this conceptualisation is “risk homeostasis”, whereby it is argued that the individual “targets” a fixed level of perceived risk to govern his/her performance on any given activity (4,5). The psycholigical mechanisms by which risk is perceived and affects behaviour remain speculative; one model is based on low-level learning of the outcomes of competing tendencies in beviour (6). The typical activity to which the conceptualisation is applied has been road- travel and reflects the observation that may safety features do not maintain their benefit over time: drivers squander safety benefits in less careful driving, as reflected for example in greater and more erratic speeds. Two examples concern seat-belts and ABS brakes (5,6,7).

As applied to running, the implication is that greater sophistication in shoe design reduces the perceived likelihood of potential injury; however, the consequence may be an increase in risky running behaviour. For example, the runner may pay more attention to uneven surfaces when wearing a less sophisticated design of shoe, but determine that a more sophisticated design deals adequately in equivalent circumstances; if this is not the case then more pain and injuries will result from the more sophisticated design.

Tony H. Reinhardt-Rutland
Reader in Psychology
University of Ulster


1. Ryan MB, Valiant GA, McDonald K, Taunton JE. The effect of three different levels of footwear stability on pain outcomes in women runners: a randomised control trial. Br J Sports Med doi:10.1136/bjsm.2009.069849.

2. Richards CE, Magin PJ, Callister R. Is your prescription of distance running shoes evidence-based? Br J Sports Med 2009; 43: 159-162.

3. Reinhardt-Rutland AH. Negating the safety advantage in running shoe design: perceived risk affecting performance? Br J Sports Med 2009 []

4. Wilde GJS, Robertson LS, Pless IB. Does risk homeostasis theory have implications for road safety? BMJ 2002; 324: 1149-1152.

5. Adams JGU. Risk. London: UCL, 1995.

6. Reinhardt-rutland AH. Seat-belts and behavioural adaptation: the loss of looming as a negative reinforcer. Safety Sci 2001; 39: 145-155.

7. Aschenbrenner M, Biehl B. Improved safety through improved technical measures? Empirical studies regarding risk compensation processes in relation to anti-lock brake systems. In RM Trimpop, GJS Wilde (eds). Changes in accident prevention: The issue of risk compensation. Groningen: Styx, 1994.

E-letter: Are there risk factors in alpine skiing?

12 Jul, 10 | by Karim Khan

This E-letter is in response to Are there risk factors in alpine skiing? A controlled multicentre survey of 1278 skiers. Abstract | Full article

We read with interest the article from Hasler et al. (2009) “Are there risk factors in alpine skiing? A controlled multicentre survey of 1278 skiers”.

In general, the answer is: ‘yes, there are internal (e.g. gender, age, fitness, skill level, risk taking) and external (equipment, environment) risk factors’ according to comprehensive model for injury causation by Bahr and Krosshaug (1). However, we would like to comment on the presented data and methods used because some results seem contrary to other studies in this research field.

Firstly, Hasler et al. reported that skiers with new equipment have a higher risk of being injured. However, there seems a mistake in the presented data because in the abstract the Odds Ratio (OR) was 59 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.37-0.93 while in Table 1 the OR was 0.59. If the OR of 0.59 was correct, new equipment would decrease injury risk. In addition, what means new equipment? Did the authors compare carving skiers with traditional skiers as done by Burtscher et al. (2) showing a reduced injury rate since the introduction of carving ski? Where is the cut off between new and old equipment? In the discussion section, Hasler et al. stated that the results might be explained by a mismatch between the abilities of the skier and the equipment. Unfortunately, they did not include skill levels in their questionnaire. Several studies showed higher injury rates in less skilled skiers and snowboarders (3, 4) while more skilled skiers had a higher risk to sustain a more severe injury (5).

Secondly, there seem mistakes concerning the presented data about snow conditions. In Figure 3, artificial snow versus old snow and fresh snow versus powder snow show OR <1 while in Table 1 the same OR are presented vice versa (OR 0.21 for old snow vs. artificial snow and OR 0.31 for old snow vs. fresh snow, respectively). It is the same with slush snow versus powder snow which is not a snow condition but a skiing condition in Figure 3 and powder snow vs. slush snow in Table 1, respectively. In addition, old snow seems to be in contrast to fresh snow. Does fresh snow mean powder snow? However, can old snow not be also old artificial snow? Therefore, it is not clear which snow condition actually increases or decreases injury risk.

Thirdly, seasonal checking of skiing equipment showed a trend to decrease injury risk (OR: 0.46, p = 0.056). In our opinion, seasonal checking of skiing equipment includes primarily an adjustment of the bindings. In accordance, Burtscher et al. (2) showed that female carving skiers with a binding adjustment older than 1 year had a twofold knee injury rate compared to those with newly adjusted bindings. The release of a binding is primarily important in preventing injuries to the lower extremity. Therefore, it would be better to define risk factors with regard to the injured body location.

Fourthly, injured skiers showed a higher readiness for risk taking in this study. In contrast, other studies  reported that injured skiers did not take more risk but were less skilled compared to uninjured skiers (6-8). Therefore, it would make sense to include skill level.

Fifthly, Hasler et al. showed a higher injury risk when skiing under bad weather conditions which is well in accordance with the study by Aschauer et al. (9). However, poor snow and weather conditions may be misjudged by injured skiers because they may look for an explanation as to why the injury occurred. In general, self-report to questions might lead to underreport or overreport of health-risk behaviours affected by cognitive and situational factors (10).

Sixthly, gender has not been found to be a significant risk factor in this study. That might be due to the fact that Hasler et al. did not differentiate between injured parts of the body, e.g. females have a higher knee injury risk (2) and males have a higher head injury risk (11) compared to the other gender.

Seventhly, Hasler et al. calculated that injury risk is higher when warming up. This result contrasts general preventive recommendations (12) and also the findings by Ruedl et al. (13) who demonstrated a twofold injury reduction in a cohort of 36.000 participants of 12 ski schools when warming up.

Eighthly, there seems a mistake concerning the presented data about drug consumption. Figure 3 shows an OR > 1 for abstinence from drugs while inTable 1 drug consumption was presented vice versa. In  addition, in Table 1 an OR of 5.92 was presented while in the discussion the OR was 1.78 for drug consumption.

Since a case control design was used, the amount of exposure to the suggested risk factors was unknown which should be taken into account when interpreting the results (14). In the study by Hasler et al. the controls were interviewed when coming off slopes after skiing. This implies that controls skied probably more than 3 hours although other studies showed that most injuries to the lower extremity occurred within the first 2 or 3 hours of skiing (15, 16). A total of 782 patients were recruited over a period of 5 and a half month and 496 controls were interviewed in six different ski resorts. This means an average of about 83 controls per ski resort and an average of 15 uninjured skiers per month, respectively. However, Hasler et al. (2009) did not specify when controls have been recruited, e.g. every second day. A continuous recruitment of controls seems of utmost importance to compare prospectively potential external risk factors like snow, weather and slope conditions. In general, a prospective study design concerning internal and external risk factors in relation to gender and type of injury should be used. However, at least a case-control-design should be applied matching controls according to gender, age and skill level.

Gerhard Ruedl & Martin Burtscher
Department of Sport Science
University of Innsbruck, Austria


1. Bahr R, Krosshaug T. Understanding injury mechanisms: a key component of preventing injuries in sport. Br J Sports Med 2005; 39: 324-329.
2. Burtscher M, Gatterer H, Flatz M et al. Effects of modern ski equipment on the overall injury rate and the pattern of injury location in Alpine skiing. Clin J Sport Med 2008; 18:355-357.
3. Langran M, Selvaraj S. Increased injury risk among first-day skiers, snowboarders, and skiboarders. Am J Sports Med 2004;32:96-103.
4. Hagel B. Skiing and snowboarding injuries. Caine DJ, Maffulli (eds.): Epidemiology of Pediatric Sports Injuries. Individual Sports. Med Sport Sci. Basel. Karger,2005;48:74-119.
5. Goulet C, Hagel BE, Hamel D, et al. Self-reported skill level and injury severity in skiers and snowboarders. J Sci Med Sport 2008; doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.10.002
6. Bouter LM, Knipschild PG, Feij JA, et al. Sensation seeking and injury risk in downhill skiing. Person. Individ. Diff. 1988;9:667-73.
7. Cherpitel CJ, Meyers AR, Perrine MW. Alcohol consumption, sensation seeking and ski injury: a case-control study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 1998;59:216-21.
8. Goulet C, Regnier G, Valois P, et al. Injuries and risk taking in alpine skiing. ASTM STP 1397, Skiing Trauma and Safety: Thirteenth Volume, RJ Johnson, P Zucco, JE Shealy (eds.), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2000:139-46.
9. Aschauer E, Ritter E, Resch H et al. Injuries and injury risk in skiing and snowboarding. Unfallchirug 2007; 110: 301 306. (in German)
10. Brenner ND, Billy JOG, Grady WR. Assessment of factors affecting the validity of self-reported health-risk behavior among adolescents: evidence from the scientific literature. J Adolesc Health 2003;33:436-457.
11. Mueller BA, Cummings P, Rivara FP, et al. Injuries of the head, face, and neck in relation to ski helmet use. Epidemiology 2008;19:270-76.
12. Koehle MS, Lloyd-Smith R, Taunton JE. Alpine ski injuries and their prevention. Sports Med 2002; 32 (12): 785-793.
13. Ruedl G, Sommersacher R, Woldrich T et al. A structured warm-up program to prevent injury in recreational skiers. Senner V, Fastenbauer V, Boehm H (eds.): Book of Abstracts of the 18th Congress of the International Society for Skiing Safety, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, April 26 to May 02 2009, 77.
14. Vandenbroucke JP, von Elm E, Altman DG et al. Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE): explanation and elaboration. Epidemiology 2007;18 (6): 805-835.
15. Ungerholm S, Engkvist O, Gierup J et al. Skiing injuries in children and adults: a comparative study from a 8-year period. Int J Sports 16. Ruedl G, Schranz A, Fink C et al. Are ACL injuries related to perceived fatigue in female skiers? ASTM International 2010; 7 (4), Paper ID JAI102747

IOC World Conference on Prevention of Injury & Illness in Sport 2011 deadline

6 Sep, 09 | by Karim Khan

The deadline for proposals for the 2011 IOC World Conference on Prevention of Injury & Illness in Sport is November 1st 2009 – act now!

– K. Khan

Dear Colleagues,

Based on the tremendous success of the 1st and 2nd World Congresses on Sports Injury Prevention in Oslo in 2005 and Tromsø in 2008, their successor, the IOC World Conference on Prevention of Injury & Illness in Sport, will be held in Monaco from 7 to 9 April 2011. The scientific committee now welcomes your proposals for meeting sessions and speakers. The deadline for submission of proposals is 1 November 2009.

When submitting proposals, please refer to the enclosed definitions of meeting sessions. To be considered for inclusion in the programme, your proposal must strictly follow the format outlined in the enclosed instructions. Your proposal will be evaluated by the scientific committee, and the final programme of invited speakers will be ready by 1 February 2009.

The IOC World Conference on Prevention of Injury & Illness in Sport will follow the model of the 2005 & 2008 congresses, with a multidisciplinary perspective on sports injury prevention for different sports and different injury types, including studies on intervention methods, epidemiology, risk factors and injury mechanisms. However, as reflected by the change in title, the scope of the congress will be expanded from sports injury prevention, to also include the prevention of other health problems associated with sports participation.

The three-day programme will include four or five keynote lectures, about 20 symposia, 15-20 workshops, in addition to free communications and posters. Please note that, at this time, we are asking only for proposals for keynote lectures, symposia and workshops – not abstracts for free communications. The deadline for submission of abstracts for free communications and posters will be 1 January 2011.

Please reply to Cherine Fahmy at at your earliest convenience, but not later than 1 November 2009.

Note that although the congress committee will cover the cost of accommodation and social events for invited speakers, we will not be able to reimburse travel costs, since we plan to invite a considerable number of international speakers to be able to feature a first-class programme. We encourage you to visit the congress website, where more information will be posted over the next few months.

Monaco is situated on the most beautiful coast in Europe, built on a rock between the Alps and the Mediterranean Sea. Its mild climate, easy access, excellent hotels and security are the principal qualities which make Monaco a prestigious destination for an unforgettable event. Furthermore, the Grimaldi Forum, a state-of- the-art conference centre for the 3rd millennium, daringly built out over the sea with a total area of 35.000 m2, is the perfect location to receive a high standard congress such as the IOC World Conference on Prevention of Injury & Illness in Sport”.

We welcome your programme proposals and look forward to a spectacular congress in Monaco in June 2011! Yours faithfully,

Roald Bahr (s)
President, Scientific Committee

Fredrik Bendiksen (s)
President, Organising Committee


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