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Engaging Students with Twitter

26 Mar, 17 | by josmith

Kirsten Huby, Lecturer Children’s Nursing, University of Leeds (@KirstenHuby)

Emma Wilson, Children’s Nursing Student, University of Leeds (@Emzieness

The latest Horizon report (Adams Becker et al., 2017) recognises collaborative learning as one of the key trends that will be driving Higher Education for the next few years. It suggests that collaborative learning improves engagement, encourages learning that relates to practice and enables communities of practice to be developed. For healthcare students this type of learning can be used to develop the skills to think critically, problem solve and become open to recognising the diverse nature of the health and social care arena. Technology can help to promote collaborative learning but will only be successful if we can engage students and ensure they see the purpose of what is to be achieved.

 

It has been suggested social networking sites (SNS) encourage the type of collaborative learning advocated by (Adams Becker et al., 2017, Prestridge, 2014) ,we cannot assume that a particular type of SNS will necessarily work. In a study on the use of Twitter, students tended to use a tweet to ask a question of a lecturer rather than to collaborate between themselves. The author considers that students may need to be guided and supported to recognise the depth of knowledge and understanding that can be shared in this way (Prestridge, 2014). This implies that in order to be fully engaged students need to understand the purpose of the interaction and the tool that is being used.

To do this, informative learning opportunities and consultation with students needs to occur. The twitter community is diverse; some nurses opt to have separate ‘nursing’ accounts, others opt to combine professional and personal tweets as one online personality. Ultimately this comes down to personal preference. However, it must be considered that social media guidance has been set by the NMC (Nursing and Midwifery Council, 2015) and this and the requirements of the NMC Code must be adhered to at all times; on and offline and regardless of whether an account is identified as personal, professional or both. Student nurses therefore need to have an awareness of their responsibilities and potential accountabilities surrounding any social media use in relation to this.

A significant factor which potentially hinders student participation with SNS in a learning environment is whether they are comfortable with lecturers/mentors potentially having the ability to view personal posts/tweets. One such way around this is to have a specific agreement to not follow students back from University curated accounts. This means that students can view informative tweets / retweets on their timelines, but their own postings aren’t automatically or as easily visible. This leads to an element of ‘privacy’ and choice, allowing students to choose whether to engage with lecturers if they want to, but also benefit from some of the wider aspects of using SNS such as furthering knowledge / sharing views on current research or topical issues and collaborating and engaging with other students and professionals. As we take the next steps with the @UoLchildnursing account we hope to increase our engagement with students and with the help of motivated student twitter champions such as @Emzieness we hope this will be possible.

Adams Becker, S. et al. 2017. NMC Horizon Report: 2017 Higher Education Edition. 2017 ed. Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium.

Nursing and Midwifery Council. 2015. Guidance on using social media responsibly. London.

Prestridge, S. 2014. A focus on students’ use of Twitter – their interactions with each other, content and interface. Active Learning in Higher Education. 15(2), pp.101-115.

Women with sickle cell disease carry additional risks for pregnancy

7 Mar, 17 | by josmith

Professor Allison Shorten, Director Center for Interprofessional Education and Simulation, University of Alabama, and Associate Editor Evidence-Based Nursing

 One of our most recent EBN commentaries reminds us of the health challenges faced by women with sickle cell disease globally. One of our expert commentators, Dr Eugene Oteng-Ntim from Guy’s and St Thomas’ Hospital, discusses a recent study by Bogfor et al (2016), highlighting the need for future research to address the high rates of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality associated with sickle cell disease in pregnancy. Globally, sickle cell disease is one of the most common genetic conditions, and when combined with pregnancy, risks are higher, regardless of whether women are living in low or high income countries. Read more about this recent systematic review and meta-analysis, and recommendations for health policy and clinical management.

Commentary: Oteng-Ntim, E. (2017) Pregnancy in women with sickle cell disease is associated with risk of maternal and perinatal mortality and severe morbidity, Evidence Based Nursing,

http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/eb-2016-102450

Reference:

Boafor TK, Olayemi E, Galadanci N, et al. Pregnancy outcomes in women with sickle-cell disease in low and high income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BJOG 2016;123:6918.

Nursing attitudes to deliberate self-harm

6 Feb, 17 | by hnoble

Clare Carswell, Undergraduate mental health nursing student  & Dr Helen Noble, Lecturer, Queens University Belfast

Deliberate self-harm is a term that can be used to describe a variety of behaviours that involve an individual inflicting some form of physical harm to their own body. It is most typically associated with self-inflicted lacerations and self-poisoning. Self-harm is a growing issue, with an increase in the incidence within Britain and worldwide. A longitudinal examination of presentations to Irish hospitals for self-harm found an increase of 2-6% per year between 2006 and 2009 [See Perry et al 2012 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0031663]. The most recent report by the Royal College of Psychiatrists (2010) also noted that self-harm is one of the five top causes of hospital admissions, although this report is due for review. http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/pdf/position%20statement%204%20website.pdf

A number of studies suggest that only 10-20% of people who self-harm present to hospital or seek treatment and as the incidence of self-harm is typically measured by the number of people who present to hospital the scope of the issue could be vastly underestimated. While the increase in rate of self-harm globally, coupled with the existing high incidence, is valid justification for developing an understanding for practice in this area; another rationale for exploring the topic is the link between self-harm and suicide. Self-harm has been shown to be the most important factor when assessing risk of suicide meaning that appropriate early intervention is essential. Mental health trained practitioners are the professionals typically associated with providing comprehensive assessment and interventions, however the vast majority of individuals who self-harm will make first contact with emergency department personnel. It is crucial that the practice of emergency department nurses is compassionate, empathetic and effective in assessing and treating these patients, especially due to the associated risk of repeat episodes of self-harm and suicide following an initial presentation.

Attitudes can have a significant effect on behaviour meaning that the attitudes nurses hold can have an impact on their nursing practice. Patients who self-harm report high levels of stigma and negative attitudes, stating that they have been called ‘attention seeking’ or ‘manipulative’ as a result of the self-injurious behaviour. The text Blades, Blood and Bandages tells the stories of 25 people’s experiences of self-injury and investigates how those who self-injure are ‘affected by suffering, ritual and stigma’ http://www.palgrave.com/br/book/9780230252813

These negative attitudes and beliefs have originated from not only their friends and family, but also from medical professionals and emergency department personnel following presentation for their injuries. These attitudes can be interpreted through the professional’s behaviour and can have a profound effect on the patient. They can determine whether the patient decides to stay in the hospital for assessment, treatment or referral and whether they are instilled with a sense of hope and validation which in turn can help reduce the risk of further incidents of self-harm and even suicide. Attitudes can also have a more direct impact on nursing practice, for example nurses may feel unequipped or unprepared to perform a comprehensive assessment or to refer on to specialist mental health services. Referral to services can be problematic with this patient group. An understanding of the attitudes held by emergency department nurses may be able to inform areas for improvement in the education and practice of general nurses. One potential area for improvement could be a need for further education or training on the subject of self-harm, as an increased knowledge of self-harm has been shown to improve attitudes towards this patient group. Another area for improvement may be in the practice of emergency department nurses and improved access to mental health services, either through a mental health liaison nurse, a crisis intervention team or an unscheduled care team. More collaborative working between emergency departments and acute or community mental health services, and the opening of the lines of communication between services, may also be an appropriate change to practice. NICE Guidelines (2004) on self-harm recommend that emergency department services and mental health services should play a joint role in developing training on the treatment, assessment and management of self-harm. Emergency department nurses may feel that they do not have the resources, the capabilities, the appropriate skill set or be in the correct setting to adequately address the needs of the patient group meaning that involvement of mental health nurses could be crucial to improving the service provision for individuals who self-harm.

 

 

 

The power of reflection in nursing

30 Jan, 17 | by dibarrett

Lizzie Ette. Lecturer in Nursing, The University of Hull

This week’s EBN Twitter Chat is on Wednesday 1st February between 8-9 pm (UK time).

The chat will be led by Lizzie Ette (j.ette@hull.ac.uk ), Lecturer in Pre-registration Nursing, The University of Hull.

Participating in the Twitter chat requires a Twitter account; if you do not have one you can create an account at www.twitter.com. Once you have an account, contributing is straightforward. You can follow the discussion by searching links to #ebnjc, or contribute by creating and sending a tweet (tweets are text messages limited to 140 characters) to @EBNursingBMJ adding #ebnjc (the EBN Twitter chat hash tag) to your tweet, this allows everyone taking part to view your tweets

The power of reflection in nursing

As is so often the case, professional and personal lives are intricately related, and the recent experience of losing our family cat Reggie, following a road traffic accident at Christmas, really got me to reconsider the power of reflection on a personal level, and this got me thinking deeply about how important reflection is in my professional capacity, as a nurse.

  Reggie: 2000-2017

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Diaries for critical care patients

8 Jan, 17 | by josmith

Angela Teece (A.M.Teece@leeds.ac.uk)  Trainee Lecturer in Adult Nursing, University of LeedsAngela

Critical care is primarily concerned with curative interventions and the use of technology, and nursing and medical care to maintain life. Patients are frequently sedated for long periods of time that can causes memory loss and unusual perceptual experiences which can make it difficult for survivors to piece together the time they spent in critical care (Samuelson and Corrigan, 2009). The presence of delirium, which occurs in 35-80% of critical care patients (Collinsworth et al., 2016) further complicates recovery. The frequently nightmare dreams are more vivid than fragmented true recollections and can prevent patients developing an illness narrative and understanding the traumatic episode (Jones et al., 2001).

Critical care nurses have a duty to provide rehabilitative care (NICE, 2009). So how can nurses make a positive impact on their patients’ psychological recovery? Patient diaries are increasing in popularity in the UK after originating in Scandinavia. The subject of a recent Cochrane review (Ullman et al., 2015), the evidence base for diaries and guidance for those completing them remains scanty. However, the premise is simple and low cost. Nurses complete entries throughout the patient’s critical care admission, describing events and the environment in layman’s terms. The diary is given to the patient after discharge, often at a follow-up clinic where further support can be accessed. The aim is, simply, to fill in memory gaps and encourage discussion.

What do patients think of their diaries?

‘It was hard… to realise that it was actually about me, and that I could have died’ (Storli and Lind, 2009)diary

‘It is frustrating not to have all the information about one’s critical illness, and much energy is expended trying to piece information together’ (Engström et al., 2009)

‘It’s fantastic that you’ve gone to the trouble of doing this for me!’ (Storli and Lind, 2009)

Have you written in a patient diary?

Reading:

COLLINSWORTH, A. W., PRIEST, E. L., CAMPBELL, C. R., VASILEVSKIS, E. E. & MASICA, A. L. 2016. A Review of Multifaceted Care Approaches for the Prevention and Mitigation of Delirium in Intensive Care Units. J Intensive Care Med, 31, 127-41.

ENGSTRÖM, A., GRIP, K. & HAMRÉN, M. 2009. Experiences of intensive care unit diaries: ‘touching a tender wound’. Nursing in Critical Care, 14, 61-67.

JONES, C., GRIFFITHS, R. D., HUMPHRIS, G. & SKIRROW, P. M. 2001. Memory, delusions, and the development of acute posttraumatic stress disorder-related symptoms after intensive care. Critical Care Medicine, 29, 573-580 8p.

NICE 2009. Rehabilitation after critical illness. In: HEALTH, D. O. (ed.). London: Department of Health.

SAMUELSON, K. A. M. & CORRIGAN, I. 2009. A nurse-led intensive care after-care programme – development, experiences and preliminary evaluation. Nursing in Critical Care, 14, 254-263.

STORLI, S. L. & LIND, R. 2009. The meaning of follow-up in intensive care: patients’ perspective. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 23, 45-56.

ULLMAN, A. J., AITKEN, L. M., RATTRAY, J., KENARDY, J., LE BROCQUE, R., MACGILLIVRAY, S. & HULL, A. M. 2015. Intensive care diaries to promote recovery for patients and families after critical illness: A Cochrane Systematic Review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 52, 1243-1253.

Helping Older People with End Stage Kidney Disease make Decisions about Treatment

19 Dec, 16 | by hnoble

Dr Helen Noble, Lecturer & Clare Carswell, Undergraduate mental health nursing student, Queens University Belfast

me-1

There are at least 59,000 adult patients receiving renal replacement therapy to treat end stage kidney disease (ESKD) in the United Kingdom. In addition there are over 1.8 million people being treated globally – 77% treated with chronic dialysis and 23% living with a transplant. Kidney disease is categorised into five stages depending on the estimated glomerular filtration rate and evidence of kidney damage. The most severe of these stages is stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease where the eGFR is < 15 ml/minute/1.73m (table 1).

bcmj_50_vol16_table1_stages

The number of older patients with ESKD is increasing annually as the population ages. The UK population aged over 65 is predicted to increase by 60%, from 10.3 to 16.9 million by 2035 [https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/], and increased numbers of older patients will commence dialysis worldwide. Older patients who require dialysis report a higher burden of “geriatric syndromes”. These include frailty, falls, and cognitive impairment. There is also evidence that dialysis initiation may be associated with accelerated rates of functional and/or cognitive decline [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15507063]

Renal replacement therapy includes haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis or transplantation but choices regarding treatment are perplexing. One particularly difficult decision concerns older people with ESKD, unsuitable for transplantation, who have to decide between dialysis and conservative management. Dialysis involves coming to hospital three times a week for four hours each visit and requires attachment to a dialysis machine which filters the blood and replaces the role of the damaged kidneys. Conservative management offers a supportive and palliative approach to care, without dialysis. Patients are supported and followed up by a multidisciplinary team often in their own homes. Some people regret their decision to start dialysis and some may go on to withdraw from treatment. Others report that they didn’t fully understand the decision they were making. There is a need to ensure that patients making decisions between dialysis and conservative management are supported through this process. Decision-aids may help people who are facing these difficult health treatment decisions.  Decision-support interventions encourage people to be more actively involved in decision making, improve risk perceptions and congruence between the choice made and their personal values. They may also help improve communication between patients and staff.

There are limited decision-support interventions available to assist with complex decision-making in people who are choosing between dialysis and conservative management. The OPTIONS decision-aid has been developed in Australia and is being tested in a multisite randomized controlled trial [http://www.readcube.com/articles/10.1111/jan.12921]. A similar tool is being developed in Ottawa, Canada. In the UK, The excellent ‘Dialysis Decision Aid’ has been developed to help people make decisions about renal replacement therapy but it has less of a focus on conservative management and is aimed at all age groups [https://www.kidneyresearchuk.org/DialysisDecisionAid].

In the UK there is a need to develop a UK specific decision-aid for people deciding between dialysis and conservative management in order help patients with kidney disease make the best possible decision. In order to test such an aid a randomised trial similar to the one in Australia is recommended.

Managing pain in children: How far have we come in the past 20 years? Where do we need to get to?

4 Dec, 16 | by atwycross

imageIn October it was 20 years since the first Pediatric Pain Letter (http://childpain.org/ppl/) was published. Over the years this publication has disseminated a huge about of information about pain in children. Despite this, and other work in the area, children continue to experience unrelieved moderate to severe pain while in hospital (Kozlowski et al. 2014, Twycross & Finley 2013). In 2015 we published a review of the literature looking at nurses’ postoperative pain management practices (Twycross et al. 2015). We concluded that nurses’ assessment and management of children’s pain is still not always consistent with published guidelines. Results of studies looking at the reasons for this were inconclusive with contradictory results. Many of the studies included were of low quality or chart audits meaning that data was probably incomplete. We suggested that research needs to be carried out to examine the impact of organisational factors on nurses’ pain care practices and that intervention studies are needed to determine the most effective strategies to support and improve nurses’ pain care for children. more…

Clinical academic roles: Some reflections on the benefits, the challenges and the next steps

27 Nov, 16 | by atwycross

Clinical academics make an invaluable contribution to healthcare yet it is estimated that only 0.1% of the Nursing, Midwifery and Allied Health Professional (NMAHP) workforce are currently in these roles. The absence of a clear clinical academic pathway has been a barrier to NMAHP pursuing these roles (Coombs et al., 2012). Earlier this month the Association of UK University Hospitals released guidance on transforming healthcare through clinical academic roles in NMAHP (http://www.medschools.ac.uk/SiteCollectionDocuments/Transforming-Healthcare.pdf). The guide provides a practical resource to develop and sustain NMAPH clinical academic roles. It is aimed at healthcare provider organisations and anyone interested in fostering clinical ascreen-shot-2016-11-25-at-11-33-30
cademic roles for NMAHP. In each section, a ‘what’, ‘why’ and ‘how’ format is used accompanied by case study examples.

I am a full-time PhD student and part-time paediatric oncology nurse. As I reach the end of my first year in both roles I am grateful for this document and the fact that it encourages healthcare providers to support positions like mine. My clinical role has valuable benefit to my academic work. Metaphorically, I bring my patients and their families to my academic work and use their experiences to critique my own research and the wider literature. My patients provide me with the motivation to excel in my research and to ensure it is effectively disseminated to benefit them. Similarly, my academic role enables me to bring an evidence-based perspective to my clinical role. As a newly-qualified nurse, this grounding in evidence-based research helps me look critically at procedures and gives me an awareness of the experiences of my patients and their families beyond what I see on my ward. more…

Fields of nursing: do we need them, what should they be and when should nurses choose theirs?

10 Nov, 16 | by dibarrett

Dr David Barrett, Director of Pre-Registration Nurse Education, Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Hull

One of the perennial issues faced by nurse education and the nursing workforce is the formalisation of different categories of Registered Nurse. Whether called ‘fields’, ‘branches’ or ‘specialties’, there is continual discussion about what constitutes a standalone area of nursing and at which point in a nurse’s career specialisation should take place.

Discussion of this issue is particularly lively within the UK. Currently, there are four fields of nursing – Adult, Children, Learning Disabilities and Mental Health – with student nurses selecting their chosen field at the time of application to University, and then completing a degree (or higher) level programme of study focused on that field (albeit with some shared elements across fields).

However, this structure is under review and likely to change. The publication of ‘Raising the Bar’ – a review of nurse education in England – challenged the current model. The review suggested that current system of a three-year, field-specific programme of study did not produce flexible practitioners with the transferable skills necessary to work with patients and clients in a range of settings (Willis, 2015). The review proposed a more generic model, specifically suggesting that students complete two-year ‘whole-person’ education, before specialising in the final year of their programme and first year post-registration.

 

raising-the-bar

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The Healthcare Practitioner Role in COPD

7 Nov, 16 | by hnoble

Emma McGleenan and Dr Helen Noble, Queens University Belfast

“Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an umbrella term for chronic lung conditions characterised by airflow obstruction that cannot be fully reversed, such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis” (Osadnik et al, 2012). COPD is the third leading cause of death in the world. Over 29,776 deaths occurred due to COPD in 2012 within the UK (British Lung Foundation, 2012). The disease needs to be fully understood by health professionals in order to provide the best care possible and reduce the global impact of the disease. There is no cure for COPD. Management of COPD involves the use of bronchodilators, corticosteroids and oxygen therapy. Inhaled corticosteroid therapy reduces frequency of exacerbations when given in combination with an inhaled long-acting beta2 agonist and improves quality of life. As the main symptom of COPD is dyspnoea, The Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale is used to assess the severity of the shortness of breath and whether it is in the presence of exertion or not. It is graded from grade one to five and it allows the progression of the disease to be monitored. Pulmonary rehabilitation should be considered in the management of COPD. This involves exercise training, education and psychosocial support. Pulmonary rehabilitation involves aerobic exercise to rebuild skeletal muscle e.g. cycling and walking. Healthcare professionals can educate patients on airway clearance techniques which have shown some benefits to COPD patients. NICE (2015) recommend that every patient with COPD undertakes a comprehensive reassessment including a psychosocial assessment, important because patients with COPD have an increased associated risk of suffering from depression and anxiety.

There is little research available on interventions for sexual dysfunction for people with COPD specifically. However, erectile dysfunction is estimated to be between 72 and 87% in men with moderate to severe COPD. Current and up to date advice should be given to patients about this area and nurses should encourage patients to express any concerns they have. People with COPD also have an overwhelming fear of dying due to suffocation and health care professionals can help alleviate this by maintaining good communication, in particular, in relation to end of life care.

COPD is a debilitating, progressive disease of the airways which leads to individuals feeling fatigued and as a result socially isolated. Healthcare professionals play a very important role in supporting patients to invest in their health, to stay positive, address all concerns, and to manage their condition effectively.   Government initiatives also help to manage and prevent COPD. Tele-monitoring has become popular with an emphasis on people managing their own conditions at home. There are some cases where COPD is not preventable but in a large number of cases it is and smoking cessation is the best way to prevent someone developing COPD. It is the role of healthcare professionals to attempt to persuade people to quit smoking using methods such as brief intervention training.

 

References

British Lung Foundation (2012) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) statistics Available at: http://statistics.blf.org.uk/copd (Accessed: 28/12/2015)

Osadnik C R, McDonald C F, Jones A P, Holland A E. (2012) ‘Airway clearance techniques for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease’ The Cochrane Collaboration

 

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