Siddhartha Yadav: A foreign medical graduate’s path to US residency

On 15 September 2013, thousands of doctors and doctors-to-be will flock to the Electronic Residency Application Service (ERAS) website to apply for a residency position in the United States. As this date is approaching, I can see both excitement and apprehension on the faces of prospective candidates. Most of the candidates that I know are foreign medical graduates (FMGs). For them, the process to get into a residency programme in the US is different in many ways from the pathway for graduates from US medical schools. The application submission is only one step in the long process that begins years before it. At this juncture, I cannot help remembering my own journey through the process that landed me here in the US.

Most medical students in Nepal start to think about pursuing a career in the US when they are in the final years of their medical school. There are a lot of things to consider. What you wish to specialize in is probably one of the first things to consider. Radiology, dermatology, orthopedics, ophthalmology, ear, nose, and throat specialty, and any surgical specialty is difficult, if not impossible, to get into for most FMGs as these are usually filled by US graduates. Internal medicine, pediatrics, family medicine, and pathology are probably easier to get in to.

Another thing to consider is the cost of the process. The United States medical licensing examinations (USMLE) are expensive. Then there is the cost of travel to the United States, the cost of living here, and the cost of applications. I spent around $10 000 on the whole process. Many doctors in Nepal work for a year or two to earn this sum before considering coming to the US.  I worked for a year, but did not make enough and ended up asking my parents for help.

The most important thing to consider, in my opinion, is whether you are prepared to leave your friends and family to spend the next three years or more in a new country. When we are in the process of deciding, we are surrounded by our loved ones and it is easy to overlook this fact. I did not realise how much I would miss my family and friends until I came over here. I use Skype and Facebook, but there is nothing like spending time face to face.

After deciding to pursue a residency in the US, then comes extensive preparation for the USMLEs. In Nepal we are not used to taking tests like the USMLEs. Also, the epidemiology of diseases that we see in Nepal are very different from those in the US. Most of us in Nepal spend around six to eight months reading before taking the USMLEs. It is said that most US residency programs use USMLE scores to screen the applications from FMGs. Hence, all FMGs spend a great deal of time preparing for the exams to score as high as they can.

One of the most daunting exams for FMGs is the USMLE step 2 clinical skills examination. This examination, in addition to testing for competency in clinical skills, also tests for communication skills and spoken English. The real challenge for FMGs during this exam is to ditch their accents and pronounce words in a way that is understood by most Americans. This exam can only be taken in the US. For FMGs from countries like Nepal, obtaining a visa to come to the US is a challenge. Many prospective candidates have to terminate their US residency dreams because they cannot get a visa.

Finding a place to live in the US can be a challenge. It is expensive. Also, it is difficult to rent a place without a social security number. In addition, the application and interviews take months. Most applicants from Nepal board at the houses of their seniors from medical school who are already doing a residency in the US. It is a tradition that has continued for years. This saves a lot of money for the applicants and also makes them feel at home.

By the time the candidates apply for a residency position, usually a year or two has passed by since they began their journey to get into a US residency position. After this the process is more streamlined. Candidates are invited for interviews by programme directors and ranked accordingly. Match day is an important day for everyone. It is the day where candidates find out whether they have been matched into a residency position or not. For many, this is the day that ends in celebration of all the hard work and time put into the process. However, for almost 50% of the FMGs, this is not the case. Many of these FMGs decide to quit the US residency pathway at this point. Others will come back another year for another round of interviews.

The whole process of trying to get into US residency is long, expensive, and tiring for many FMGs. There are a lot of debates surrounding the issues of FMGs beginning with the issue of “brain drain.” I will discuss those issues on another day. For now, I would like to wish all the applicants the very best. For those who are considering embarking on this journey, I will leave you with what my mentor, Buddha Basnyat, said to me when I asked him about doing my residency training in the US: “Make sure this is what you really want to do, and this is not just a blind commitment to the goods of this world.”

Siddhartha Yadav is a former BMJ Clegg Scholar and a third year internal medicine resident at William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan.

  • Concerned

    Dr. Yadav, well put blog. Now being in the US system can you suggest what a FMG with many years since graduation can do? When I say many years I am saying like 5 years. I have so much experience under my belt. I did not match in my first year and since then it has only been downhill. This is something I truly have a passion in otherwise I would have also quit. I am not sure what a person like me can do. Having done a MPH, working abroad and being clinically active for 5 years is still not enabling me to get interviews. When I call programs and ask them what more I can do its always the same few answers, ” we cannot answer that for you, you need to be clinically active (which I am), or there have been too many years since graduation (really, I didn’t figure that)”. It’s getting frustrating and it simply comes down to who you know. Is that all it takes? It makes me angry and sad because those of us who are more than capable of being physicians are not getting g the opportunity and we are stuck! And those that don’t really care for the practice of curing and caring are breezing through because they have contacts. How are we to help our world if a system is holding us back? Just recently I was looking into MSF,and even they require completion of residency or a license. Ok, that is understandable, but wanting to do something as such, we can’t. Please advice and help those ying to makea difference

  • Siddhartha Yadav

    Dear Concerned,

    I can understand your frustration with the system. It is very unfortunate that the system sometimes tends to ignore good FMGs like you. Statistically speaking, a recent medical graduate has a better probability of performing well during the residency. Is this a rule? No, i do not think so. I have met many foreign graduates who graduated several years ago and I know that they are excellent physicians. You might be one of them. However, residency programs usually have an upper hand when it comes to choosing FMGs and they are very unwilling to take the risk of hiring someone who has graduated several years ago. From a practical standpoint, there are few things you could do so that they do not consider you as a risk and they see your true potential: 1. Work with American physicians. Impress them with your work so that they can vouch for your ability to residency program directors. I know it is difficult to find such clerkships but you have to keep on trying. 2. If possible,work on research projects. Residency programs have a tough time finding candidates who have research background.This might boost your CV and make it more noticeable. 3. Do not lose your patience. I am sure success will come with hard work and perseverance. I have known of many doctors who matched years after their graduation. 4. You are right, it is a lot about contacts over here. When somebody vouches for someone, the program directors feel more comfortable and consider it as a lesser risk to hire that person. So, continue to build your contacts and use them wisely.

    Good luck!!

  • Aspiring

    Dr.siddhartha I am a FMG and I graduated 5 yrs ago I am yet to give my usmle steps and I have a professional gap of 3 yrs I am in us on h4 visa how can I make my self a good candidate to match into a residency program I am looking for less competitive programs what are my options how can I strengthen my resume. Please advice me on this

  • Amir Reza

    Dr. Yadav, many thanks for your explanations, I really enjoyed reading. Recently I have heard that from 2015 on, the US residency programs will no longer accept FMGs, or it will be dramatically limited. Is that true? On the other hand we know that the residency programs are increasing in number each year. So totally, is it getting more difficult or less? And is that rumor true or not? Thank you!

  • Depressed doc in dead in job

    I can have some sympathy for the FMG’s wanting to come here…but not very much. I am a US grad with great board scores. I was forced out of a malignant program. I went thru the whole match again in 2014 for the 4th time. Interviews, but no offers of anything during SOAP. I am considering Mexico or another country. And to be honest, suicide crosses my mind several times a day.

    Oh and PS I’ve been unemployed for 1 year.

  • Elvin İsazadə

    hi.dr siddharta im just looking for medical residency requirements.i have no any complete information about.pls type all steps u ve passed before being im bachelors.can i participate in that petition?.or should i be gradute?does it strongly recommend?

  • anonymous

    I am sorry to hear your plight. I have no idea what circumstances lead you down this path but, suicide is never!!! the answer. where is your fighting spirit? You have said it yourself, move to a different country, start over, its a fresh page. you cannot change your past but you definitely can build a different future. Its all in the way you chose to approach this situation. Give yourself a second chance. All the best

  • Iren Selab

    Hi Doc, I believe in all the difficulty that you have gone through applying for a residency position. My friend has yet to get lucky. It has been a good 4 years since he has tried applying. He passed USMLE 1 and 2 but I guess you can call him a second taker on the exams. The medical field is quite challenging and competitive especially for a FMG. And so far no interviews or even match. I guess it’s also a matter of luck and destiny. I am just saddened by what had happened to my friend. Not to be biased and all but I think he is a good doctor, but being good is not like being lucky at all. Thank you for sharing your experience.

  • IMG Angel

    My sympathies to those who have struggled with obtaining a US residency. My wife, now a third-year resident, initially struggled because her application and interviews were unpolished. Unfortunately being fluent in a second language is not the same as understanding the nuances of a language (especially when writing or interviewing). My wife and I started an organization, IMGAngel (, to assist IMG’s with obtaining US medical residencies. Please feel free to visit the website if you are interested in learning more.

    Thank you,

    Ben Anderson
    CEO, IMG Angel

  • tony watson

    Writing daily Posts are difficult, and i believe rather outsource for Infographics and publish them once of twice every month, this will give them floods of traffic than writing daily content bloggers should also

  • lucky1

    What happens after residency if the IMG would like to stay in the US and practice?

  • Shaivya Arora

    can u please tell me if US medical experience is necessary before applying for residency …. and when are suppose to get this clinical experience after step 2 cs and ck or before step 2 exam.?