Perturbations of BMP/TGF-β and VEGF/VEGFR signalling pathways in non-syndromic sporadic brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVM)

Brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVM) represent a congenital anomaly of the cerebral vessels with a prevalence of 10–18/100,000. BAVM is the leading etiology of intracranial hemorrhage in children. To identify gene variants potentially contributing to disease, we sequenced the DNA of 100 families with a BAVM phenotype. Pathogenic variants were then studied in vivo using a transgenic zebrafish model.

We identified four pathogenic heterozygous variants in four patients, including one in the established BAVM-related gene, ENG, and three damaging variants in novel candidate genes: PITPNM3, SARS, and LEMD3, which we then functionally validated in zebrafish. Our study highlights the specific role of BMP/TGF-β and VEGF/VEGFR signaling in the etiology of BAVM. (By Sen Zhao, )

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